Additionally, previous factors might have negated the benefits of the different configuration systems that were implemented in this study. (December 2005): Seeding Rates May Be a Place to Save, Decision tool on variables that will affect your seeding rate. In soybean, plants were counted from a 2.3‐m 2 area in the center of each plot at the V3 soybean growth stage (Fehr & Caviness, 1977). One den of groundhogs can consume a tenth to a quarter of an acre of soybeans. AY-217-W Plant Populations and Seeding Rates for Soybeans Purdue extension 2 Purdue Extension recommends row spacing between 7.5 and 15 inches for maximum soybean yield. 2150 Beardshear Hall Wide rows are also easier to drive through to spray or cultivate. Results showed that out of the four planting configurations, the drilled 7.5-inch row outperformed the 30-inch rows. The yield difference between 30-inch rows and rows 20 inches or less can be as much as 2.9 bushels per acre, but there are other considerations. His extension, research and teaching program is focused on how to holistically manage Iowa cropping systems to achieve productivity, profitability and en... ISU Extension and Outreach If you have wet seedbed conditions or if you have a lot of residue since you are using reduced tillage practices, then it may be an advantage for you to increase your seeding rate to 140,000 seeds per acre. Plants height and yield components in the soybean crop (Glycine max), cultivar BMX Apollo RR®, seeded with different row spacing on 11/14/2012, Mutuca Farm (Arapoti-PR, Brazil). is recognized worldwide for its economic importance; it has the ability to adapt to environmental and management changes, particularly when using different spacing and plant populations.This study aimed to investigate the influence of morphological changes of the crisscross seeding system on grain growth and yield. between plants when planting soybeans. 1. At lower populations interplant competition is reduced and each individual plant has a greater opportunity to produce more seeds. If you’re using the square foot gardening method, plant 9 per square foot. Choosing a seeding rate that is high increases seed cost and may not contribute to a yield increase. The expectation would be that narrow row spacing and increased plant population would improve light interception and that would then have a cascade effect, increasing crop growth rate and potentially improving seed production. The term plant population refers to the number of soybean plants per acre. Other agronomic practices were in alignment with local standards. I am recommending farmers to try to see if they can manage a lower seeding rate (Table 4). Studies have shown that rows less than 30 inches can produce higher yields than wider rows (30 inches or greater). spacings of 40, 30,20, and 10inches as the main plot and 12, 10,8,6,4, and 2 plants per foot of row as the split plots were used with 4 replicates at several locations across the state. What about the whole story on seeding rate versus economics? Merlin, under very diversified thermal and humidity conditions in … 2009. Seed prices have increased over the last 10 years and in order to remain competitive seeding rates should not be ignored. In harvests from 2006 to 2008, Zhou et al., point out that row spacing of soybean ≤ 0.27 m is a highly suitable cropping system for the plains of northern China. 1 Due to the ongoing goal of increasing yield potential for an ever-growing population, research continues to compare the … soybean rows, at different planting dates and seeding rates, over six sites in Illinois. Air moves better around plants in wider rows, so soybeans in wide rows may be less susceptible to damage by white mold. Row spacing can either refer to the space between plants in the same row or the distance between two rows. (800) 262-3804, Iowa State University The relative importance of branches varied with spacing for seed and pod numbers but had little or no effect on seed weight and … In most cases, there is no difference between 7.5, 10, 15, or 20 inch row spacing and anything less than 30 inch is … In a similar study conducted in 2011, drilled soybeans produced the highest yields. Spacing Soybean Plants. and 30-in. A demonstration trial was established in 2012 at the Monsanto Learning Center near Gothenburg, NE to evaluate the effect of row spacing on soybean yield potential. You do not need to increase your seeding rate if you are using a 15 inch row spacing compared to a 30 inch row spacing. If the farmer decides to make ridges, the ridges should be spaced at 75cm In the present study, maize gain yield increased as maize narrow-row spacing increased from P1 to P3 under R1 or R2 condition; opposite results were observed with intercropped soybean. In addition, Roundup PowerMAX® (28 fl oz/acre) and Warrant® Herbicide (2 pints/acre) were applied on 2 July 2012. 3. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a primary Illinois field crop, and maximizing returns through use of efficient soybean planting practices is important to producers. All rights reserved. Summary Soybean row spacing preferences vary greatly across the Midwestern U.S. with narrow rows (15 inches or less) favored in Ohio and Indiana and 30-inch rows more common in Iowa and Nebraska. Always consider proper soybean product selection, seedling population, row spacing, and fungicide application strategies to help reduce stress and help optimize soybean yield potential. How the Closeness of Plants Affect Growth. However, low plant populations may result in lower pod height, lodging of lateral branches, and higher weed populations, all of which may result in harvest losses. Table 4. Improved planter technology and increased seed quality have resulted in more accurate plant populations and stand establishment that are only slightly reduced from the seeding rate, and do not require over seeding by 20 to 30%. They need to look above and beyond their current cultural practices. Free Online Library: Soybean Light Interception and Yield Response to Row Spacing and Biomass Removal. soybean plants, regarding row spacing, density and uniformity of plant distribution in a row determines intraspecific competition for water, light and nutrients, in addition to being able of influencing grain yield and yield components (BOARD, 2000; KUSS et al., A U of I study over the past two years funded by the Illinois Soybean Association compared 15-in. Using the above formula (1), Dashiell et al. At a given plant population, as row spacing decreases the plant spacing within the row increases and results in a more equidistant plant spacing. Iowa State University Extension. When planting soybeans in a larger soybean field, according to Purdue University Extension, space soybean rows between 7.5″ – 15″ apart. Seed yields at Waseca, but not at St. Paul, were greater at the narrower than at the wider row-spacing. (Greg Endres and Mike Ostlie) The field study was conducted at the NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center with support by the ND Soybean Council to examine soybean response to paired rows and plant canopy types. help increase yield potential. There were days in late June and early July 2012 that daytime temperature was at or above 100° F; 26 June temperature recorded 111° F. In 2011, only two days in late July when daytime high temperatures were 100° F, while 16 days of temperature at or above 100° F was recorded in 2012. Most farmers find it easier and more reliable to count number of seeds per foot of row or seeds per acre instead of pounds or bushels per acre. Read a recent article by Palle Pedersen reprinted from the Iowa Soybean Review Table 1 shows the number of plants per acre for each treatment of the experiment. Soybean row spacing. In general, narrow rows decrease the time to canopy closure, which can help leaves intercept more light throughout the season. Between 1 June and 10 September 2012 approximately 16 inches of irrigation were applied to all plots at a rate of one inch/acre on weekly intervals. A low plant population can be competitive with higher plant populations as long as the plant population is uniformly distributed in the field. Using 50cm by 50cm spacing for soybean with 2 seeds per hole would make you get 80,000 plants per hectare. Because soybean seed size varies among varieties and even within the same variety, planting rates should be considered in terms of plants per foot of row, not pounds per acre. The effects of spacing within row were variable. Wide rows are also easier to drive through to spray or cultivate. Planting into a poor seedbed, use of poor quality seed, inaccurate planter adjustment, planting too fast, soil crusting, soil moisture extremes, and environmentally induced plant injuries such as herbicide drift, pathogens, insects, hail, or frost all reduce plant population requiring a greater seeding rate. Some farmers use 20cm by 20xm; this is quite too close. It is usually expressed in terms of plants per acre or plants per linear foot of row. The increasing width of planters — many are now 60 feet wide — means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very … Air moves better around plants in wider rows, so soybeans in wide rows may be less susceptible to damage by white mold. Other considerations Research demonstrates that sound agronomic practices such as adequate seeding rates and fertility along with thorough weed control are likely more important for yield and quality. It has previously been an insurance to overseed just to be sure that we received the proper stand since seeds were not very expensive, but who can afford this today? Combining winter wheat row spacing of 14 cm with soybean row spacing of 18 cm and soybean row spacing of 27 cm is a highly suitable planting system for the plains of Northern China. University of Wisconsin found only a 2 bu/ac yield increase when replanting early soybeans between 50,000 and their optimum stand of 100,000-135,000 plants/acre. One key thing that I can share right now is we do not find a seeding rate by row spacing interactions. Since there is good evidence that soybean is already source limited, any more reduction on source capacity would come at a cost of yield per plant. However under unfavorable conditions, narrow rows have not consistently shown a yield advantage over the wider rows2. The extended period of high temperatures and low rainfall during the growing season contributed to the below average yields recorded for soybean in 2012. The bottom line is that we just need 100,000 healthy uniform distributed plants per acre. These values equate to 10 and 6 bu/acre yield reductions for the 30- inch and both the 15-inch and the 30-inch rows, respectively. It is all about weed management if you have to plant late. In the 1960s, adoption of narrower rows started when research showed potential corn yield increases in 30-inch rows compared to 38-inch rows. That’s what the vertical line to the right side of Figure 5-4 represents. Soybean costs ($ per acre) for seed and herbicide; Figure 1. Soybean Production Fact Sheet 3/12/2008. The average yield of the 30-inch twin row and 15-inch row systems were similar (86 bu/acre) (Figure 2). Plant spacing in the field is very important and plays a significant role in determining plant growth and development. With seeds only about an inch apart in wide rows to 3 or 4 inches apart in drilled rows, the great ability for plants to compensate for missing neighbors, and seed rates that tend to be higher than necessary in many fields, little cause for concern exists about plant spacing uniformity in soybean. Average yield (bu/acre) of a Genuity® Roundup Ready 2 Yield® soybean with relative maturity (RM) of 2.4 to row spacing configurations for trial conducted in 2012. average seed spacing. Sources: 1Pedersen, P. 2008. A U of I study over the past two years funded by the Illinois Soybean Association compared 15-inch and 30-inch soybean rows, at different planting dates and seeding rates, over six sites in Illinois. In the seeding rate figure, the relationship between yield and final stand is a relatively flat line indicating that soybean can yield well over a wide range of seeding rates. An optimal plant population for soybean production is one that maximizes both yield and profitability. Most corn planters are set to plant 30-inch rows, and 15-inch soybeans are generally planted by using split-row units placed between the 30-inch rows. Iowa Farm Business Association. Proper soybean row spacing is considered more important than tillage or optimum plant population for maximizing yield potential. Soybeans have a similar growth habit to bush beans, so there’s no caging or staking required. Soybean plants emerged at 4 DAP. I am proposing to you that you should try to use a seeding rate of 125,000 to 140,000 viable seeds per acre (need to be increased if the germination is below 90%) if you have perfect seedbed conditions at planting. NebGuide G90-963 issued November 1990. 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Over the past two years funded by the Illinois soybean Association compared 15-in equidistantly plants... 38-Inch rows varieties, which can help leaves intercept more light throughout the season and light... Planters – … seed yields at Waseca, but not at St. Paul a fixed row width (... Another ; therefore one variety may have occurred earlier than in the future seed that is high seed!
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